Professor: Ed Kanet

Graphic Communications Program

WebCT CSN Online Campus [Canvas)]


GRC 104


Dictionary of Layout & Typography Terms


A Back to Previous Page

The secondary, tertiary and other elements of the page that support the main (or primary) element, bringing various focal points to the layout.
The space between two columns of text; also called column gutter (see also gutter).
Description of the justification of type: left justified, right justified, center justified or fully justified. (see ragged)
art credit
Copy placed near a non-photo artwork specifying who created it. (see photo credit)
The part of a lowercase letter that rises above the main body of the letter (as in b, d, h).

B Back to Previous Page

harmonious arrangement or relation of parts or elements within a whole; equality of distribution of the visual weight of all the design elements of a layout
banner or banner head
In newspaper work, a main headline running across the top of the page. Often used more loosely for the title heading on a journal or newspaper. (see nameplate)
The imaginary line upon which text rests. Descenders extend below the baseline.
black-and-white graphic
Original and artwork that are comprised of only black on a white background. (see lineart)
An area of text or graphics that extends beyond the edge of the page. Commercial printers usually trim the paper after printing to create bleeds.
(see breakout)
body copy or text
(see text)
body type
The specific typeface that is used in the main text
bold italics
A type style in which the image face is both italicized (slanted from left to right) and bolded (darkened); used to create visual interest and emphasis.
bold type
A type style in which the image face is darkened; used to call attention to the text on which it is used.
book list
A list of the individual documents that are included in a complete publication.
bounding box
A rectangular space on cc the page defined by dragging the mouse diagonally; used to constrain the width of text or graphics that is typed or placed.
bracketed serif
A serif that meets the main stroke by blending into it with a smooth curve (also called a fillet)
The degree of curve connecting a serif with the main stroke.
A unique and identifiable symbol, association, name or trademark which serves to differentiate competing products or services. It serves as both a physical and emotional trigger to create a relationship between consumers and the product/service.
Brand Principle
Expression of the core beliefs and attitudes of behind the brand.
Brand Values
Expression of the brand's 'personality' in a way that is clear, relevant and compelling.
The process by which a product, service, event, or concept is clearly defined by public awareness of name, graphics, or corporate/organization/event identity.
A sentence excerpted from the body copy and set in large type that is used to break up running text and draw the reader's attention to the page. Also called a pull quote or blurb.
A short bit of type, such as (AP). In this case, it would signify that the story is from the Associated Press.
A typeset character (a large dot or symbol) used to itemize lists or direct attention to the beginning of a line. (See dingbat.) .
Credit given to the writer of the text (e.g. by John Smith).a

C Back to Previous Page

A label that identifies an element in an illustration.
camera-ready copy (CRC)
The actual artwork that is prepared on a flexible, yet durable board; used by the printer for creation of the final film and plates; also referred to as the mechanical.
Cap Height
The height of an upper case letter.
Text describing an illustration, photo, or other piece of artwork or graphic (see cutline).
(See natural spread).
A graphic with information in the form of graphics or a table.
clip art
pre-drawn artwork that can be incorporated into publications.
A vertical section of text on a page, separated by a rule or blank space.
Column Format
The number of columns (of equal width) the layout area of a page is divided into.
column inch
A unit of measurement one column wide by one inch tall. The column width is determined by the column format of the page.
Column Width
The measure of how wide a column is (usually expressed in terms of picas).
Abbreviation of "comprehensive" or "comprehensive layout" which is a complete and detailed sketch of a page design. Usually, a full-size likeness of a page. Also called mockup.
When the set width of a font has been shortened, the font will be more narrow-allowing more characters to fit on any given line length. Fonts should be condensed by using a true “condensed” version of a typeface. Condensing type by using the “attributes” selection screen of a page layout program increases the risk that outputting equipment will not recognize the font or ignore it completely.
continuous tone
illustration or photograph, black and white or color, composed of many shades between the lightest and darkest tones, and not broken up into dots.
continued line
(see jump line)
the design principle that states that visual elements on a page should look distinctly different from one another. Variance in how design elements are different from each other: in color, by location, shape, size, etc.
All typeset words and/or text incorporated into the publication (as in art and copy)
Adjusting the copy so that it will fit into the area designated by the layout. While you can tweek the layout to accommodate more or less copy, usually for small adjustments to fit it into the designated area.
The legal protection of afforded the owner of a creative work that gives him the right to do with it as he see fit and to prevent others from usingor copying it.
The process of writing the main text of the message.
Resize/resizing a graphic by trimming with the cropping tool.
crop marks
Fine lines that mark the corners of a page, indicating where the paper will be trimmed when the final document is printed.
The shape the pointer assumes once any of the tools for drawing lines and shapes are selected.
A centered subheading (see subhead)
Type or art that extends across the gutter between two pages.
custom graphic boundary
The boundary around a graphic that has been adjusted to match the shape of the graphic.
Term used predominantly by newspapers to describe a photo (see caption).

D Back to Previous Page

The city or place designation at the beginning of a story.
The text found underneath the headline of an article or story that provides slightly more detail than the headline and is set in a smaller point size than the headline but larger than the body text. Also called deck copy.
The portion of a lowercase letter that extends below the baseline of the other letters (as in j, p, q).
design element
A component of a publication introduced to make the pages more attractive, such as rules, boxes, logos, and designs.
A typographical ornament usually used for design emphasis within text, e.g. bullets , arrows , check marks, 
The creation of additional colors and shades from an existing palette by interspersing pixels of different colors.
Dominant Element
The main focus or primary emphasis given to a layout.
An illustration that is drawn by hand.
The distance from a chapter title to the first line of text.
drop cap
Enlarged initial capital letter, usually introduced for design emphasis. Compare to raised cap.
drop shadow
A shadow effect created by offsetting a dark graphic from the original image.
A halftone printing process in two colors, usually black and one other color.

E Back to Previous Page

One of the distinguishable components of a layout: headline, subhead, body copy, illustration, logo, border, etc.
A series of three dots used to indicate missing copy when placed between two sentences or phrases. They are commonly used when bits or quips of information are being taken from a longer quotation. They can also be used in pairs as a “continuation technique” when you want to lead a reader into other copy.
A principle of design by which the artist may use opposing sizes and/or shapes, contrasting colors, or other means to place greater attention on certain areas or objects in a work of art or layout. In typography, emphasis is the exaggeration of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text--to emphasise them.
Em dashes are used to abruptly change a thought within a sentence or to connect two different thoughts within a sentence. The actual length of an em dash is approximately four times the length of a hyphen and is relative to the set width of the font that is in use. Em dashes are so named because they are equivalent to the width of the capital letter em (M).
em space
A nonbreaking space equal to the width of the letter M in the font being used.
Importing a graphic so that the entire file is part of the layout. (see linking)
En dashes are used to denote continuation; as in “pages 4-5” and “1966-1995.” The actual length of an en dash is approximately two times the length of a hyphen and is relative to the set width of the font that is in use. En dashes are so named because they are equivalent to the width of the capital letter en (N). An en dash is one-half the width of an em dash.
en space
A nonbreaking space equal to the width of the letter N in the font being used (one-half the width of an em space).
EPS (Encapsulated PostScript)
When an image is scanned, it must be saved in a manner that will allow it to be placed, sized and colored within a page layout program. EPS files are used for object oriented, line art graphic scans.
When the set width of a font has been lengthened, the font will be wider-allowing fewer characters to fit on any given line length. Fonts should be expanded by using a true “expanded” version of a typeface. Expanding type by using the “attributes” selection screen of a page layout program increases the risk that the outputting equipment will not recognize the font or ignore it completely.
(see kicker)

F Back to Previous Page

facing pages
The two pages that face each other when the publication is open.
(see type family)
Another term for bracketing
fixed pitch
Any type style, such as Courier, that has the same amount of space allotted for each character (as opposed to proportional spacing).
The newspaper's name on page one. Also called the nameplate.
changing the direction of the image so that it is a mirror image of the original.
Focal Point
The part of the layout that is most emphasized and first attract and holds the reader's attention. (see Dominant Element.)
The page number, publication name and date appearing in the corner of a page.
One complete set of characters (including all the letters of the alphabet, punctuation, and symbols) in the same typeface, style, and size.
The margin at the bottom of a page. (see footer)
One or more lines of text appearing at the bottom of every page. (see running foot)
A footnote is a numbered passage that amplifies specific information on the page and provides direction about how to find sources or related reading.
For Placement Only (FPO)
The placement of low-quality and/or low resolution illustrations or photos in the required location and size on the CRC to indicate to the printer or service bureau where the actual or high resolution images are to be placed in the file or on the final film.
The layout of text on a page of a written document, such as margin settings, line spacing, paragraph alignment, columns, and tab settings.
The container into which a graphic or type element is placed. The graphic/type is the content; the frame is considered the container.
full color
Having all colors (as in a color photograph) because of the use of CMYK inks. Also known as 4C.

G Back to Previous Page

A structrre, configuration, or layout whose specific properties are greater than the simple sum of its individual parts.
When an image is screened back or shaded down in intensity, it is called a ghosted image. Four-color process, PMS color and black and white images can be ghosted.
A graphical (visual) representation of data set. There are hundreds of graph types, each with their own requirements.
An illustration imported into a publication; any non-type element used in desktop publishing, e.g. photo, artwork, box, line, or use of color (see graphic device).
graphic boundary
A dotted line around a graphic that limits how close text may come to the graphic.
graphic device
A specific type of graphic--line, box, circle, icon, dingbat--not considered an illustration, but used for embellishment or graphic enhancement of a layout.
A non-type element used in desktop publishing [ e.g. photo, artwork, box, line, or use of color].
Graphic Styling
A visual collection of elements creating a 'look'
A series of shades of gray ranging from white to black, used to represent a continuous tone image.
greeked text
Simulated text used to show the position of the actual text on the page. Text is greeked in order to speed the screen display.
A non-printed system of horizontal and vertical lines that divide the page and help the page designer align elements consistently.
Placing related elements close together to increase their importance.
Colored, non printing lines used to aid in positioning items on a page or text in a text box.
The space between two facing pages (inside margins). The term is sometimes used to refer to the space between two columns (see alley).

H Back to Previous Page

hairline rule
A very thin typographic rule. In desktop publishing, the width of a hairline rule varies depending on the resolution of the printer.
A process of converting levels of gray in a scanned image into dots of different sizes that simulate the shades of gray.
hanging indent
A paragraph with the first line extending to the left of the other lines.
Hard Copy
A copy of the layout that is readable without the use of the computer (usually a printout of the file.)
(see header)
One or more lines of text appearing at the top of every page.
The extra large opening statement used in a layout, used to grad the reader's attention and sometimes summarizes what the text is about.
Copy that is given emphasis over the body of text, through changes in size, weight, or spatial interval
The name of a family of a popular sans serif typeface.
When words are too long to fit on a single line, hyphenation splits the word and places the latter half on the next line of type. Hyphenation is automatic in page layout programs but should be overridden manually to repair bad word breaks and enhance copyfitting. Hyphenation can also be turned off if no hyphens are preferred.
The hyphenation zone is the space near the column’s right edge that will allow hyphenation. Long hyphenation zones result in fewer word splits than short hyphenation zones.

I Back to Previous Page

A pictorial representation of an object.
initial cap
A first letter set in enlarged and sometimes decorative type for graphic emphasis.
Usually a drawing or a painting, but any graphic element created to illustrate a story, e.g. photos, chart, clipart.
image area
The area within the margins on the page.
A temporary inward offset from the margin setting. The most common indent is at the beginning of a paragraph when the first line is set “in” from the left edge of the column. An indent can be placed on the left side only (as in paragraph beginnings) or on the left and right sides of copy (when a block of text needs to be set apart from the rest of the paragraph).
independent graphic
A graphic placed with the pointer tool. An independent graphic will not be moved along with the surrounding text.
Inline graphic
A graphic placed within a text block (through cutting and then pasting with the type tool); the graphic will wrap with the text.
inside margin
The margin along the binding edge of the page÷the left margin of an odd-numbered facing page or the right margin of an even-numbered facing page.
A type style with slightly slanted characters, used for emphasis.

J Back to Previous Page

Text at the end of an article indicating on what page the article is continued; also, the text at the top of a continued article indicating from where the article is continued.
Text that is aligned at both the left and right margins.

K Back to Previous Page

Adjusting the spacing between pairs of adjacent characters÷usually to move them closer together.
The process of typing in raw text matter (headlines, subheads and body copy) for a publication in preparation for turning it over to a graphic designer. A word processing program should be used for keyboarding. Files can also be saved in ASCII or as “text only” or “export files” for easier file transfer.
Artwork that has been designated with “key” identity “lines” indicating the position of trims, drill holes, folds, scores, and die-cuts. Keylines are also referred to as black and white camera-ready artwork.
Short, (sometimes underlined) phrase introducing a headline. Also called overline or eyebrow.
An area on a spot color overlay in which an area of overlapping color is deleted from the background color.

L Back to Previous Page

The page orientation in which the paper is wider than it is long.
The arrangement of the elements in an ad or on a page in a pleasing and readable manner; a physical "blueprint" of the page.
layout grid
The underlying foundation for a document formed by a series of nonprinting lines (column, margin, and ruler guides).
Layout Style
A rule or set of rules which a layout follows to keep a consistent look or style from page to page .An approach to keeping a cohesive appearance to the layout of a series of pages.
layout view
The window showing the page with text and graphics as they will be printed.
leader (pronounced leeder)
Rows of dots or dashes used to guide the eye to another area within the line.
leading (pronounced ledding)
The distance from the baseline of one line of type and the baseline of another line of type immediately above or below it; also known as line spacing and usually measured in points.
line art
Drawings, illustrations, or graphics that contain solids and lines only; see black & white graphic.
linked file
A graphic or text file that is tied to the PageMaker publication. When the linked file on the disk is changed, the publication can be automatically updated.
The process of creating a linked file, as opposed to embedding the file (see embedding).
list box
An element on a dialog box containing a list of items for selection.
A page’s live area is the part between borders and margins where most text and graphics will appear.
A combination of characters and/or graphics to create a single design that is used to identify a company or organization. it is often trademarked and is always included on all company printed materials and ads.
Usually refers to the type or font used in a logo (see logo). A company, product, or publication name designed as a distinctly recognizable unit.
Lower Case
Small letters of the alphabet, e.g. a, b, c. See minuscules.

M Back to Previous Page

The area from the edge of the paper to the boundary of the layout area of the page.
A mask is created when the background or a specific area of a photograph or illustration is dropped away. Masking is also referred to as “outlining” or “silhouetting.”
A brand name that dominates all products or services in a range or across a business. Sometimes used with sub-brands, sometimes used with alpha or numeric signifiers. Audi, Durex, Nescafe and Lego, for example, are all used as masterbrands.
This term is used to mean three things and can get confusing. It is used to mean the name on page one, for the box on the editorial page with the names of top editors, and for the box of names, phone numbers and addresses that appears in the first few pages of the newspaper
A nearly outdated term (see camera-ready copy)
(see comp)

N Back to Previous Page

The name of the publication usually found at the top of the front cover. Often incorrectly referred to at the masthead; also called the flag. (see banner)
natural spread
The only printer spread in a multi-page publication that is also a reader spread. (Also called centerfold)
nonprinting elements

O Back to Previous Page

Oblique is the slanting of a san serif type.
optical center
The spot that the eye sees when it first encounters a page.
orphan or orphanline
A single line of a paragraph at the top of a page or column.
outside margin
The margin opposite the binding edge of a page÷the right margin of an odd-numbered facing page or the left margin of an even-numbered facing page.
(see kicker)
Printing one color over another, instead of knocking out the background color (see also knockout).

P Back to Previous Page

Positioning a graphic within the framework of its cropped borders.
Pantone Matching System (PMS)
A proprietary color mixing system.
A page layout with all graphics and text in place.
Portable Document Format. Universal format by which files can be read using the Acrobat Reader software.
(see continuous tone illustration)
photo credit
Copy placed near a photograph specifying who created it. (see art credit)
printing's unit of measurement which equals 12 points or approximately 1/6 of an inch (see point).
Dummy text or graphic used to reserve a place for later insertion of the actual text or graphic.
Printing's unit of measurement which equals 1/12 of a pica or approximately 1/72 of an inch; the size of type is measured in points (see pica).
The page orientation in which the paper is taller than it is wide.
printer spread
The two pages that are printed side-by-side on the same sheet of paper.
process color
A means to produce color output that contains many colors and/ or many variations of color tones using only four colors--cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.
progressive margins
A page layout design technique for facing pages. The smallest margin is the inside margin, the top margin is slightly larger, the outside margin is a little larger, and the bottom margin is the largest.
Consistent ratio relations between the parts of two different elements [e.g. if a page is 10 x 8 inches, then a thumbnail representing it would be 5 x 4 inches, or 2.5 x 2 inches or 1.25 x 1 inches]
proportional spacing
Spacing for type in which characters are not all the same width (i.e., an i would take less space than an m).
A small diagram in the control panel that represents the object selected in the document.
Publication date
The date of the periodical, usually printed in the footer.
pull quote
Short excerpts from text that are enlarged and set off from the page with boxes or lines. These are used for emphasis or to fit text copy into columns. Also called a breakout or blurb.


R Back to Previous Page

The uneven alignment of text lines. Ragged is the opposite of flush. A text block may be formatted to be evenly aligned (flush) on one side and unevenly aligned (ragged) on the other.
Ragged Left
Style of typesetting where a column of text aligns to the left and the right remains ragged.
Ragged Right
Style of typesetting where a column of text aligns to the right and the left remains ragged.
raised cap
An enlarged initial letter extending above the body text, sue as a graphic element to draw attention to the beginning of a story or chapter. Also called stick-up cap. Compare to drop cap.
The right-hand page; the odd--numbered page of a spread.
reader spread
Side-by--side pages (facing pages) as viewed the by the reader (e.g. pages 2 and 3 or pages 24 and 25). See spread.
registration mark
A mark added to a document for color printing to aid the commercial printer in lining up copies of the same page.
The design principle that states that repeating lines, shapes, images, colors, textures, and other visual elements within a layout helps establish a unified, cohesive design.
The number of dots in a square inch used to create text or graphics. High-resolution images have more dots per inch and look smoother than low-resolution images.
reverse type
White text on a black background. Not available on many printers.
rough or rough layout
Preliminary page layout done by the designer, created to actual size, showing the position of all elements, but lacking full detail of the final.
In typography, a straight line, identified by its weight in points.
running foot (see footer)
A line of text at the bottom of the page with information similar to that in a running head.
running head (see header)
A line of text at the top of each page that may include such information as title, author, chapter, issue date, and page number.
running text
(see body text)

S Back to Previous Page

sans serif
A style of type without serifs. An example of sans serif type style is Helvetica.
Screens are the “tinting” or “shading back” of a solid image area. Screens are defined in percentages from 99% to 1% of solid (solid = 100% and white = 0%).
screen font
A font used to display characters on the screen. Screen fonts are created as bitmaps in the same resolution as the monitor.
screen pattern
A series of dots or lines placed on a graphic. The screen converts a grayscale image to halftone and can also be used on bitmapped images.
A file that holds a series of steps necessary to create a PageMaker document. When the script is executed, the steps are carried out.
semiautomatic flow text
Placement in which the text flows to the bottom of the column and stops with the text icon loaded with the rest of the text.
A small cross-stroke that appears on the arms of letters; added for design and readability. An example of a serif type style is Times.
Any non-frame container or a non-geometric closed path.
Box of text at the side of a document presenting material related to, but not necessarily a part of, the text.
Portions of an image (usually the background) are removed to bring out the shape of a major element in the image.
Sketch Book
A bound book of blank, unruled pages used for creating thumbnails and other sketches used in the research and idea-generating portion of the design process.
A term for promotional boxes that are usually above the nameplate of the newspaper. Also known as a teaser.
When a type font’s serifs are squared off, rather than tapered to a point, they are referred to a slab serif types. Examples of common slab serif types are Courier, Lubalin and Egyptiennes.
Spell-checking is an automatic function that page layout programs offer to assist designers in reducing typos. A spell-check feature is only as reliable as the dictionary that its program employs and spell-check will not identify mistyped words that exist but are out of context. Spell-checks also cannot identify nonsensical sentences that can occur with “cut and pasting” or double space bars.
An element or text that is outside of the page boundaries; it is separate from the document itself, used like an electronic sticky note. This is the perfect place to put such information as job numbers, project identification, proofing boxes, or other job notations. Will print to output, but not end up on the final page.
Abbreviation for specification, the act of listing the specifications for a design element. (for example, to spec type is to determine all values that need to be applied to the type to completely describe it—font, size, color, leading, alignment, etc.)
spot color
Overlays a page prepared so that each color on the page is printed separately and then combined by a commercial printer to form the completed page.
Two facing pages (see reader spread, printer spread, natural spread)
The distance between the edge of the graphic and the graphic boundary. Determine how close text will flow.
stick-up cap
(see raised cap)
story view
The window showing a story. In story view the Story Editor is used to perform word processing functions.
A message used in conjunction with the Masterbrand or a sub-brand. For instance, the strapline for General Electric would be "GE, Bringing Good Things to Life.".
A set of formatting information applied to a paragraph that causes text to reformat according to the specifications of that style. (Not to be confused with type style.)
A product or service that has a persona and brand values that separate it from the parent brand. A product or service that has its own brand identity, which is proprietary and can be trademarked; A name, logo and/or design which is used as the focus for perceptions of a product or service which is endorsed by the Masterbrand. Sub-brands never stand alone, but borrow some of the perceptions from a 'parent'
May be either a display line enlarging on the main headline, usually in smaller size or a short heading inside the copy used to break up long patches of gray.

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A tab adds white space to set off or highlight blocks of copy.
a columar representation of data.
tag line
An identifying line of text that appears at the top or bottom of a printed page that shows the file name, page number, date, and/or time.
Shows what is in the inside of the paper or previews a story or series. Same as a promo, but smaller.
A page torn from a publication
The main body of words or copy in any type of documents (also referred to as body, copy, body copy)
text block
The amount of text confined within windowshade handles when selected with the pointer tool.
text box
A rectangular area on a dialog box where text can be typed.
Any object which contains text, e.g. headline, caption, body copy.
A thin space is rarely used today. It was originally developed when hot metal was the popular form of typesetting and situations often arose where a minute amount of space was needed to center or justify a line of type. The only common use for thin spaces is placing them before and after an em or an en dash. A thin space is approximately one-third the width of an en space.
A miniature version of a page; at the doodling stage.
Breaking an oversized publication into sections, which are then printed on separate sheets of paper and later joined together.
A percentage of black or a color.
tint box
A rectangle filled with a tint.
The space between each letter of a word.
Overlapping abutting colors to eliminate the possibility of white leaks between the colors if the print plates are not properly aligned.
Any object which contains type, [e.g. headline, caption, body copy (text)].
type family
All of the related fonts (styles) of a particular typeface, based on the original face.
type size
The measure of a type's height in points.; usually measured in points.
type style
Variations within a typeface. Plain, bold, italic, underline, outline, and shadow are styles found in the Style menu for almost all applications used for creating text or graphic documents.
Type of a uniform design. The characteristic design of a set of type fonts. Each design is identified by name, such as Helvetica, Times, New York, or Geneva. The names in the Font menu are typefaces installed in the system file on the startup disk.
The art and process of skillfully arranging type in a layout.
Upper Case
Capital letters, e.g. A, B, C; majuscules
Uniform Resource Location (another name for web address)

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The left-hand page.
Visual Hierarchy
The arrangement of visual elements on the page according to their importance and in the order of their emphasis.

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A design added to some papers during manufacture, visible against the light; any graphic converted give a low value and placed behind text which so appears as a watermark.
Weight (type)
The boldness or thickness of letters.
widow line
A single line of a paragraph at the bottom of a page or column.
word wrap
When a word in a line of text automatically moves to the next line as it approaches the right-hand margin of the text block.
When type is shortened or follows the outline of an illustration, graphic or photograph, it is called a wrap-around type.
The acronym for “what you see is what you get” and is the process of viewing your document on a monitor before it is
finally output. WYSIWYG software programs have replaced “code-driven” programs of the phototypesetting generation
of composition.

XYZ Back to Previous Page

The height of the body of lowercase letters, exclusive of ascenders and descenders.