APA Style Guide
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This guide serves to assist CSN students in formatting APA style papers. These guidelines are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition)
. Always check with your instructors to make sure these guidelines meet their requirements. Revised August, 2013.
Guidelines for Citing Sources in a Reference List
Authors' last names are listed first, followed by the first initial of the first name and the first initial of the middle name, if available. First and middle names are never spelled out completely. Ex.: Meyers, D. G.
The year of publication is typed in parentheses, followed by a period. Ex.: (2002).
TITLES OF BOOKS & ARTICLES:
Titles of articles and books are typed using a capital letter for the first letter of the first word only in the title and subtitle. All other words in the title are typed using lowercase letters. Ex. Intuition: Its powers and perils.
Meyers, D. G. (2002). Intuition: Its powers and perils. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Book Example: Two Authors
JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, & NEWSPAPERS:
Wright, J. H., & McCray, L. W. (2012). Breaking free from depression: Pathways to wellness. New York,
NY: Guilford Press.
- Titles of journals, magazines and newspapers should be typed using a capital letter for each word in the title except articles, conjunctions, and prepositions less than four letters long.
- Titles, as well as the volume number, should be italicized. If an issue number is given, type it in parentheses immediately after the volume number. Do not italicize the issue number.
- For more than one author, add a comma after each author's name. Add an ampersand (&) before the final author.
Journal Article Example:
ONLINE SOURCES WITH DOI:
Westphal-Johnson, N., & Fitzpatrick, M. A. (2002). The role of communication and writing intensive
courses in general education: A five year case study of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. JGE:
The Journal of General Education, 51(2), 73-102.
For journal articles found online (from a database or a search engine), use the article's Digital Object Identifier (DOI). When available, it is found on the first page of the PDF version.
Online Article with a DOI Example:
ONLINE SOURCE WITHOUT A DOI:
Vandewater, E. A., Shim, M., & Caplovitz, A. G. (2004). Linking obesity and activity level with children's
television and video game use. Journal of Adolescence, 27(1), 71-85.
When no DOI is available, use the homepage URL of the journal, magazine, newspaper, or publishing company that published the item you are citing. If that URL is difficult to find, omit it and cite the source as if it was found in the print version. When an article is found using an aggregator database like Proquest do not
use the name or the homepage URL of the database in the citation since coverage may change over time.
Online Journal Article without a DOI Example:
Bernstein, G. A., Carroll, M. E., Crosby, R. D., Perwin, A. R., Go, F. S., & Benowitz, N. L. (1994). Caffeine
effects on learning, performance, and anxiety in normal school-age children. Journal of the
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(3), 407-415. Retrieved from http://
Online Magazine Article without a DOI Example:
Shulman, P. (2004, March/April). Great expectations. Psychology Today, 37, 32-42. Retrieved from
Online Newspaper Article without a DOI Example:
URLs TO USE FOR SOME SPECIFIC DATABASES:
Hu, W., & James, G. (2004, June 3). Manhattan: Profiling measure advances. New York Times, p. B6.
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/
For databases and other subscription online sources with a single publisher, use the publisher's URL in the citation. Some common examples are listed below:
|Congressional Quarterly (CQ) Researcher
|Gale Virtual Reference Library
|Issues and Controversies
|Opposing Viewpoints In Context
|Oxford Reference Online
Entry from Credo Reference:
Penicillin. (2010). In Black's medical dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com
Article from Issues and Controversies:
Junk food in schools. (2002, March 29). Issues and Controversies. Retrieved from
Additional Reference Examples
|Types of References
|Journal Article with Two Authors
||Westphal-Johnson, N., & Fitzpatrick, M. A. (2002). The role of
communication and writing intensive courses in general education: A
five year case study of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. JGE: The
Journal of General Education, 51(2), 73-102.
|Online Journal Article with more than Seven Authors
||Nardi, A. E., Valença, A. M., Nascimento, I., Freire, R. C., Veras, A. B.,
De-Melo-Neto, V. L., . . . King, A. L. (2008). A caffeine challenge test in
panic disorder patients, their healthy first-degree absolutes, and healthy
controls. Depression & Anxiety, 25(10), 847-853. doi:10.1002/da.20354
||Shulman, P. (2004, March/April). Great expectations. Psychology Today, 37,
||Chaker, A. M. (2004, June 15). Lonely town seeks hip young professionals. The
Wall Street Journal, pp. D1, D6.
|Chapter from a Book with an Editor
||Freeman, R. B. (2002). The world of work in the new millennium. In R. N.
Cooper & R. Layard (Eds.), What the future holds (pp. 157-178).
Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
||Fossani, J., Macksoud, A., & Ankele, J. (Producers), & Macksoud, A., & Ankele,
J. (Directors). (2006). Birdsong and coffee: A wake up call [DVD].
United States: Old Dog Documentaries.
||Espie, C., & Fuller, P. (2009). 10 things you should know about sleep [DVD].
Retrieved from http://digital.films.com/
||Colman, A. M. (2001). Post –traumatic stress disorder. In A dictionary of
psychology. Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/
||Kihlstrom, J. (2000). Parapsychology. In Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 6,
pp. 43-46). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
|Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), 5th Edition, Online
||American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and statistical manual of
mental disorders (5th ed.). Retrieved from dsm.psychiatryonline.org
|Website with Author and Date Provided
||Purcell, M. (2001). Making conversation: A skill, not an art. Retrieved from
|Website with No Author and No Date
||Myths and facts about caffeine. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.eufic.org
|Online Federal Government Report
||National Institutes of Health. Office of Research on Women's Health. (2011).
Report of the advisory committee on research on women's health:
Fiscal years 2009-2010. (NIH Publication No. 11-7749). Retrieved from
Sample Reference Page
The references list begins on a new page of the paper with page numbers continuing consecutively.
Type the word References at the top center of the page.
Each citation is arranged alphabetically by author's last name.
Each citation should begin at the left margin and a hanging indent should be used for each additional line.
Bernstein, G. A., Carroll, M. E., Crosby, R. D., Perwin, A. R., Go, F.
EFFECT OF CAFFEINE CONSUMPTION9
S., & Benowitz, N. L. (1994). Caffeine effects on learning,
performance, and anxiety in normal school-age children.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
Psychiatry, 33(3), 407-415. doi:10.1097
Hurst, M. D. (2003). Caffeine's impact on students cited in push
to curb school drink sales. Education Week, 22(26), 13.
Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org
Kelemen, W. L., & Creeley, C. E. (2003). State-dependent
memory effects using caffeine and placebo do not extend to
metamemory. Journal of General Psychology, 130(1),
70-86. Retrieved from http://www.heldref.org/pubs/gen
Citing Research Material in the Body of the Paper ("in-text citations")
Papers written in the APA style should use the author-date format of in-text citations. In general, when directly quoting
material from a source (journal article, book, web site, etc.) in the body of your paper, you must provide the author's last name (or heading title), year of the source's publication, and a page number (or paragraph number). A complete, properly formatted reference for the source must then be included in the reference list at the end of your paper.
If you are referring to an idea expressed in a source document, but not directly quoting the material, you are paraphrasing an idea. You must still give credit to the source document in the body of your paper. When paraphrasing, you only need to provide the author’s last name and year of publication in the body of your paper. However, the APA Publication Manual
encourages you to provide a page or heading title and paragraph number if it will help the reader locate the original idea in the source document.
Examples of in-text citations for a paraphrased idea:
Martinez (2002) studied the effects of caffeine consumption on student learning and retention, and found a positive correlation.
In a study on the effects of caffeine consumption (Martinez, 2002), there was a positive correlation between consumption rates and student learning and retention.
In 2002, Martinez discovered a positive correlation between caffeine consumption rates and student learning and retention.
Material directly quoted from a source document should be reproduced word for word. When directly quoting material, the in-text citation must include the author's last name, year of publication and a specific page number. In addition, the APA Publication Manual
recognizes two specific types of direct quotations: short quotations
and long quotations
Any direct quotation that is fewer than 40 words in length.
Incorporate a short quotation into the body of your paper and enclose the quote in double quotation marks ("according to…"). Place punctuation marks (periods and commas), after the in-text parenthetical citation (see examples below).
Examples of in-text citations for short direct quotations:
Current research suggests that, "Small amounts of caffeine actually improved an individual's ability to learn and retain new information" (Singh & Lazlo, 2003, p. 170).
Singh and Lazlo (2003) found that, "Small amounts of caffeine actually improved an individual's ability to learn and retain new information" (p. 170).
Any direct quotation that is 40 words in length or greater.
Display a quotation of 40 or more words in a freestanding block of typewritten lines, and omit the quotation marks. Start the block quotation on a new line, and indent the quoted material five spaces from the left margin. The entire quotation must be double-spaced. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark of the quoted material.
Example of in-text citation for a long quotation (block quote):
Singh and Lazlo (2003) concluded that:
Small amounts of caffeine actually improved an individual’s ability to learn and retain new information. However, the benefits of caffeine on learning were lost as the amount of caffeine consumed increased beyond 750 mg in a one hour period. Caffeine consumed in excess of 750 mg tended to make the subjects agitated and unable to focus. (p. 170)
Additional Rules for In-Text Citation
There are many basic rules in the APA Publication Manual
that dictate how to properly format in-text citations. This brief handout cannot possibly cover every rule. However, the most common rules students encounter when writing papers are listed below. Please refer to the actual APA Publication Manual
if you are uncertain about a specific situation. Copies are available in the Library and the campus Writing Center.
No Page Numbers on the Source Document
Many electronic documents do not contain page numbers. This is particularly true when accessing journal articles from a database (ex., Academic Search Premier, ProQuest, etc.). In such a case, it is necessary to use the heading title and paragraph number in your in-text citation when directly quoting or paraphrasing from an electronic source document (see APA Publication Manual
, pp. 171-172).
"The nap group performed significantly better" (Mednick, Cai, Kanady, & Drummond, 2008, Findings section, para. 1).
Source Document with a Group Author
When a source document was authored by a group (Ex: government organization, corporation, etc.) instead of a person, the group is considered to be its author. The group name should be spelled out in the first in-text citation, then abbreviated in later citations unless it is familiar and easily understood (see APA Publication Manual
"…two out of five report binge drinking" (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009, Substance Use section, para. 1).
Abbreviated Group Author
No Author on the Source Document
"…a good night's sleep is vital to your well-being" (CDC, 2009, Fatigue and Sleep Deprivation section, para. 1).
When a source document has no author, cite the first few words of the document title in quotation marks in place of the author (see APA Publication Manual
, pp. 176-177).
…student learning and retention ("Caffeine and Learning," 2002).
Source Document with Two Authors
If a source has two authors, cite both names every time the source is used in your paper. Join the authors' names with the word "and" in the text of your paper. Use the ampersand (&) in a parenthetical citation (see APA Publication Manual
, p. 175).
Singh and Lazlo (2003) found that…
…retain new information (Singh & Lazlo, 2003).
Source Document with Three, Four, or Five Authors
If a source document has three, four, or five authors, cite all of the authors the first time in your paper. If you refer to the same source again, include only the last name of the first listed author followed by the words "et al." (no quotes). Join the authors' names with the word "and" in the text of your paper. Use the ampersand (&) in a parenthetical citation (see APA Publication Manual
, p. 175).
First in-text citation:
Singh, Lazlo, Brown and Thompson (2004), show a correlation…
Second and subsequent in-text citations:
Singh et al. (2004) determined that moderate caffeine consumption…
Source Document with Six or More Authors
If a source document has six or more authors, cite only the last name of the first listed author followed by the words "et al." (APA Publication Manual
, pp. 175-176).
According to Singh et al. (2004), there was a positive correlation between…
Creating a Title Page
Use a serif font such as Times New Roman or Courier in standard 12-point size.
The running head is an abbreviated title. Type it at the top of the title page, flush left, using the words "Running head," a colon, and up to 50 characters of your title in all capital letters. The running head should appear on every page of your research paper after the title page, flush left on the top of the page, without the words "Running head."
The title should summarize the main idea of the paper. Avoid using abbreviations. The title should be no more than 12 words long. Type the title, centered between the left and right margins and positioned in the upper half of the page. If it is two or more lines, double-space between the lines.
Running head: EFFECT OF CAFFEINE CONSUMPTION1
Effect of Caffeine Consumption on Student Learning
College of Southern Nevada
Set up uniform margins of at least 1 inch at the top, bottom, left, and right of every page, including the title page and the reference pages.
Each page of your research paper should be numbered in the top right corner, beginning with the title page and ending with the last page of your reference list.
Type your name, centered between the side margins, one double-spaced line below the title.
Institutional affiliation identifies the location where you conducted your research and should be centered under your name, on the next double-spaced line. If you are writing the paper for a CSN class, use College of Southern Nevada as your affiliation.